Personal law deals with the relations of individual people among themselves. This includes both natural and legal persons. It contains special provisions and regulations for a person or persons‘ capacity to act and legal capacity. Natural persons are bearers of rights and obligations, but legal entities can also acquire legal capacity. The legal capacity of natural persons is determined by their nationality, while legal persons are generally judged by the law of the state in which they have their registered office. Other important connecting factors are the place of action, the domicile, the habitual residence or the will of the party.

Private international law stipulates that the legal system to be applied is particularly close to the facts of the case and also the one that appears the most fair. As far as possible, the facts of the case should be decided in the same way at home and abroad. It is therefore regulated which law is to be applied and which country has jurisdiction, if there is a connection to a foreign country.